Steam Generation

  • Future Steam Generation

    For centuries steam has been produced by the isobaric heating of water. Peer reviewed research suggest that hydraulically pressurized water injected at hypersonic velocities impacting the target would be a more efficient way of producing steam compared to conventional Rankine isobaric cycle heating. Additional papers reinforced the suggestion that enormous physical forces could contribute to the separation of water molecules and the conversion of kinetic energy into heat.

    Our experiments have validated that indeed. An additional advantage would be the ability to electronically control the volume of steam production while not requiring a physical boiler. When we first began our research and development program on the use of molecular impact methods to generate steam we began this work with certain underlying assumptions. Those being that hydraulic energy could be used to accelerate water to high velocities and the resulting heat and steam released on impact, within the unique geometry of our chamber, was a more efficient way of producing steam compared to conventional Rankine isobaric cycle heating.

    Other papers dealing with the theoretical fluid dynamics of water droplet impact and the resulting radial velocity increases and shock wave propagation at the instantaneous moment of impact further reinforced the suggestion that enormous physical forces could contribute to the separation of water molecules and the conversion of kinetic energy into heat.

    Investigations into the fluid dynamics of automotive fuel injectors led us to an understanding of the importance of cavitation with respect to injector design. Inside our apparatus vast numbers of cavitation bubbles, within the injection stream, are propelled at very high velocity towards the impact surface. Upon impact enormous water hammer pressures are present in the water droplets and this causes these bubbles to be imploded. The energy released during this process momentarily heats the water to very high temperatures. In some circumstances the temperatures are so high that oxy hydrogen disassociation is observed.

    It is understood that water will begin to disassociate at temperatures beginning at 2200 degrees C (3%) and continuing to dissociate more completely at 3000 degrees C (50%). This situation is observed in nuclear reactors, especially when there is a thermal runaway condition. It is understood that the heating inside collapsing cavitation bubbles can be on the order of thousands of degrees Kelvin. Such is the case for ultrasonically produced cavitation that is the source of sonoluminescence.

    The resulting heat, coupled with the fact that the impact chamber is pre-heated to well above the boing point of water, causes an instantaneous phase change of the water into its gaseous state. Superheated steam is produced that exits the expansion chamber when the pressure rises above the threshold set by the pressure relief mechanism. Impact chambers are scaled to yield sufficient steam to drive reciprocating engines or rotary expander style turbines.

    The observations and discoveries that we have made have are the genesis for the present design of a scalable steam generation system and the concepts behind the provisional patent that was recently filed. Many new areas of further research and development to realize new products of commercial significance ere evolving from our ongoing research. An incomplete list of projects that we are working on is as follows:

    • Research and evaluate the effect of impact chamber geometry and thermal design constraints (i.e. chamber insulation material technology)
    • Determine the effects of temperature and pressure variation with regard to steam production efficiency.
    • Research materials and methods that facilitate and enhance oxygen/hydrogen separation. This would include experimenting with known catalysts for this process and integrating these catalysts into the impact chamber design.
    • Research materials (tungsten carbide) that improve the performance of the water injection mechanism and enhance the durability and longevity of the injectors.
    • Research and design rotary expander turbines that can utilize steam resulting from oxyhydrogen combustion and impact generated steam.
    • Research power conversion systems that can efficiently convert high frequency AC power that would be produced by small scale turbines to 50/60 cycle power.
    • Research and develop the specialized electronic control systems that monitor the CCES process and control and meter the steam output.
    • Research and model molecular dynamics occurring inside the impact chamber.
    • Research and develop complete condenser and feed water systems that will allow CCES power generation to be closed cycle.
    • Supervise and coordinate the development of a theoretical and computer fluid dynamics model for CCES produced steam.
    • Oversee the design of improved small scale steam engines and turbines that utilize CCES generated steam.