CES Operation

  • Improved CES Construction and Operation - India July 28, 2016

    Event Log Ooty, India Cavitation Energy Systems, July 28, 2016

    Significant progress has been made,over the last two months, on the CES design while in Ooty, India, working together with ur technolgy partner, Greenberg, Ventures. The present design represents notable improvements. The most important changes were the manufacture of the impact chamber and containment vessel with 310 stainless steel and the improved sealing configuration.

    The reason for this was to enhance the emissivity so as to contain radiative emssissions. When cavitation bubbles collapse the internal gas becomes a heated plasma and both conductive and radiative energy are released. Our objective is to contain as much of this energy as possible within the impact chamber so as to raise the internal termperature.

    Another important change was the elimination of the internal pressure relief valve assembly and the use of a compression flange to crush the copper sealing washer to prevent internal gas leakage.

    The first figure shows an exploded view of the impact chamber in its constituent 5 components: Cap screws (5) to apply pressure to the flange and compress the washer (4), Compression flange (3) to compress the copper sealing washer (4), impact chamber (2), compression sealing washer (4) and impact chamber containment vessel (1).

    Redesigned impact chamber with constituent components - Exploded view

    Figure 1: Impact chamber with constituent components - Exploded View

    The second figure shows an actual picture of the impact chamber major components: Compression flange, impact chamber and chamber containment vessel.

    Redesigned impact chamber with major constituent components

    Figure 2: Impact chamber with individual components

    The impact chamber has an inverted conical shape. The machine marks are visible in figure three. When an injector is seated on the top of the impact chamber containment vessel the injection output streams intersect the chamber wall at a 90 degree angle to maximize incident hydraulic pressure.

    Impact Chamber Only
    Figure 3: Close up of individual impact chamber

    The fourth figure shows a top view of the assembled impact chamber without the pressure valve.

    Asembled impact chamber and containment vessel top view

    Figure 4: Impact chamber containment vessel top view

    The next photo (figure 5) shows shows the assembled impact chamber with the presure relief valve connected to the output port. The pressure relief valve has a presently seting of 350 psi although we will be incorporating a valve with a pressure of 900 psi or more. Additional valves will be tested that do not have a right angle and have both a higher operational temperature and pressure.

    Impact chamber containment vessel with expansion valve

    Figure 5: Impact chamber containment vessel with expansion valve

    The next photo (figure 6) shows the impact chamber containment vessel and expansion valve mounted to the injector containment unit. The entire assembly is insulated with ultra low conductivity and high emissivity ceramic insulation. This is further insulated with a ceramic fiber insulation that significantly blocks radiant heat (infra-red etc.)

    When the unit is at operating temperature (388 F - 198 C) it is possible to rest one's hand on the surface and it only feels slightly warm.

    The primary source of heat loss is through the connection bolts and injector, when not processing water. When steam is ejected there is heat loss associated with the ejection volume.

    Completed unit installed with injector

    Figure 6: Impact chamber containment vessel with expansion valve mounted to injector unit

    The accompanying video shows the unit in operation. Initially, the video begins with the impact chamber operating at 1 injection per second. This is increased to 3 - 5 injections per second. The last section of the video is in slow motion and shows the extent of the explosion shock wave coming from the output port of the epansion valve.

    It is important to note that there is no air input to the system, unlike conventional ICE engines which require petrol, diesel or hydrogen combined with air for combustion. The only material entering the impact chamber is water, through the fuel injector. The injector, which is a Ford 7.3L Power Stroke diesel injector with a 7:1 amplifier piston, is forcing water, saturated with cavitation bubbles, at a pressure of 21,000 psi directly at the impact target. As the cavitation bubbles are forced to collapse, due to the tremendous hydraulic pressure, some of the water separates into oxygen and hydrogen via mechanical plasma induced thermolysis. The molecular hydrogen and oxygen separated from the cooling gas subsequently combusts resulting in the violent explosive output jet. This output is sufficiently forceful to drive a piston in a reciprocating engine or alternatively a turbine in a specially designed rotary expander.

    Operation of the CCES steam generator in continuous operation - Ooty, India