Improved CES Construction and Operation November 5, 2015
Event Log Cavitation Energy Systems, November 5, 2015
Progress continues to be made on improving the impact chamber test fixture and operating it at the Impact Chamber at the research and design facility of Cavitation Energy Systems, LLC (CES) located within the design and manufacturing complex of Florida Microelectronics (FME) in West Palm Beach Florida. FME is the primary engineering collaborator with CES and is providing mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, testing and manufacturing support to CES.
We have been working for the last two weeks on design revisions test fixtures and on Thursday Novemeber 5, 2015 we conducted live tests of which there is a video feed on the bottom of this page.
Significant improvements were made to the single impact chamber CES. The unit was repositioned as a horizontal mount to minimize convection heat transfer to the injector containment module. More importantly ceramic insulation with a high emissivity rating was employed around the impact chamber containment vessel. This done to minimize radiative heat transfer. While the aerogel insulation blocks most conductive heat transfer it does little to stop radiative heat from being transferred away from the impact chamber. By combining the two insulation technologies we eliminated much of the heat loss we were experiencing.
The first figure shows the impact chamber with the ceramic insulation applied without the external aerogel sheeting.
Figure 1: Impact chamber with ceramic insulation applied
The second figure shows a view of the revised test fixture with the impact chamber. Note the application of the aerogel insulation around the entire impact containment assembly. The connection wiring is for the heaters and the thermocouple. The control panel is visible with the temperature readings of the impact chamber and feedwater. The pulse generator is positioned on the right hand side and the injector driver module, which provides the high DC voltage output pulse to the hydraulic injector is positioned just behind the pulse generator to the left.
The hydraulic oil return line is visible in the foreground and the feedwater pressure gauge is situated to the upper left of the control panel. The feedwater storage tank is to the left of the control panel. The hydraulic accumulator is visible in the background and the hydraulic pressure gauge is at the top right of the injector containment housing. TH inlet hydraulic pressure can be observed to be approximately 3000 psi. This is increased by a 7:1 amplifier piston within the injector.
Figure 2: Control panel and full CES system - Fully insulated
The third figure shows a side view of the fully insulated impact chamber assembly. Note the steam outlet tube. This comes directly from the 900 psi pressure relief valve.
Figure 3: Impact chamber side view
The next photo (figure 4)shows shows the wattmeter array used to measure power consumption during the tests. The power usage of the hydraulic accumulator, the chamber heaters, the water heater and the water circulating pump are measured with these instruments.
Figure 4: Power measurement watt meters
The following video, of approximately 8 minutes, documents the operation of the revised and fully insulated impact chamber. The results were extraordinarily encouraging. Apparently the impact chamber pressure is essential. The powerful explosions coming from the steam outlet tube are coming from oxy-hydrogen explosions occurring inside the impact chamber. Each of these injections is releasing significant steam energy. When oxy-hydrogen explodes the expansion factor is 1860 times. This would account for the powerful pressure release. Since the pressure relief valve is approximately 1000 psi the events inside the chamber should exceed this amount by a considerable amount. We know from earlier tests with a high temperature high pressure transducer that we obtained pressures exceeding 1300 psi for very short durations.
The unit is operating at a low injection pulse rate. At this rate the temperature climbs steadily rather than losing heat. We were unable to obtain this result when the unit lacked the high emissivity insulation. Most of the radiative heat transfer has been eliminated as well as the conductive heat transfer. One can rest one's hand on the outside insulation and it is barely above room temperature.
Had we used a 4% brine solution we most likely would have experienced powerful explosions on each injection as were observed in an earlier video. In that video we recorded 6 powerful shotgun blast like explosions which ceased when the pressure relief valve was destroyed. These were oxy-hydrogen explosions. The only way this can occur is if temperatures in excess of 3000 degrees C are momentarily present within the impact chamber. The only mechanism by which such temperatures can be realized is during injector cavitation bubble collapse.
A practical system would have banks (8 or more) of piezo (non-hydraulic) injectors feeding a rotary expander turbo generator. This video demonstrates the power of CES produced steam. When the injection pulses cease the steam stops immediately. As the rate increases so does the volume in lbs/hour of steam output. This fact makes the CES system very computer controllable electronically.