CES Operation

  • Improved CES Construction and Operation December 17, 2015

    Event Log Cavitation Energy Systems, December 17, 2015

    Progress continues to be made on improving the impact chamber test fixture and operating the Impact Chamber at the research and design facility of Cavitation Energy Systems, LLC (CES) located within the design and manufacturing complex of Florida Microelectronics (FME) in West Palm Beach Florida. FME is the primary engineering collaborator with CES and is providing mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, testing and manufacturing support to CES.

    This test was performed with the pressure relief valve set to 350 psi and the impact chamber temperature set to 400 degrees F. The feedwater temeprature was 182 - 190 degrees F.

    No other modifications were made to the system since the December 11 tests, where we had previously improved the ceramic insulation that surrounds the impact chamber containment vessel. This was added to reduce radiative (infrared) emissions.

    During this test we operated the test fixture at 1 injection/second and observed the output and the corresponding temperature fluctuation of the impact chamber. This can be seen in the accompanying 2 videos. The first video is approximately 2 and 3/4 minutes long and the second is slightly more than a minute.

    We ran this test slowly to show the power and heat transfer. It is very interesting to note that the temperature rises to 400 degrees from 388 degrees with the heater turned off. As a side note, it is well known that water is often used to cool steel in rolling steel mills. Rather than cooling, the impact chamber containment vessel heats up, reinforcing the fact that the only source of heat is from our cavitation energy system. It is further important to note that we are capturing the radiative heat generated during the 2.88 millisecond injection (infra-red), which normally is lost. The importance of using both the ceramic insulation (blocks radiative heat) and the aerogel, which blocks conductive heat, cannot be over estimated.

    CCES generator in continuous operation at 1 injection/second

    During the second video the power of the explosions is observed and noted. Clearly, these are oxy-hydrogen explosions. The combustion by-product of this reaction is water and this can be observed dripping from the output tube. When salt water is used this is extremely dramatic with the explosions being nearly as loud as a shotgun blast (...watch video).

    CCES generator in continuous operation at 1 injection/second - Explosion power observed

    Each injection generates heat from cavitation bubble collapse in the injection stream when it impacts the chamber surface. These temperatures can exceed 5000 C during the time of injection, which is approximately 2.8 milliseconds. This heat causes the disassociation of water molecules. Under pressure the oxygen and hydrogen recombine and implode. The implosion energy observed in the video results in the subsequent explosion and heat for each injection. The injection is variable, but in this case it is 0.275 ml per injection.This expands approximately 1860 times resulting in about 500+ ml of steam.

    Our short term objective here is to operate a piston engine with the CES apparatus. In the next design the impact chamber and injector assembly will be mounted on each cylinder. The computer control will fire the injector when the piston is at top dead center. As the steam expands the piston will be driven downward. When the piston reaches the botton of the stroke the cylinder pressure will be released through exhaust ports in the side of the lower portion of the cylinder, similar to a 2 cycle combustion engine.
    Additional pistons and impact chambers will be added to increase power output and torque. We envision a 4 cyclinder design where each cylinder will fire as the crankshaft travels 90 degrees. The speed and power output of the engine will be controlled in real time through the system computer, that can select the number of cyclinders firing and the duration of each injection for each individual cylinder.

    There are many significant advantages to this design, to name a few:

    • No boiler
    • No need for air (carburetion)
    • No intake or exhaust valves
    • No exhaust - system is a closed circuit
    • No camshaft
    • No direct fuel other than water

    A cross section of the proposed design is shown below. The impact chamber is highlighted in cross section.

    Single Impact chamber mounted above piston

    Figure 1: Single Impact chamber mounted over piston cross section

    During the tests of December 15th we measured the various input energy components through our array of wattmeters.

    Power meters

    Figure 2: Power measurement watt meters

    The following table summarizes the results.

    Test Duration Chamber Temperature Heater Volume (ml) Injection Rate Total Volume (L) Total Steam Produced (lbs) @ 388
    60 minutes 388 degrees 2 at 500 watts 0.275 5/sec 4.95 10.89

    Component Input Energy KWh Output in BTU (1250 BTU/lb) Output in KW Steam Output/Electric Input Ratio
    Water Pump 0.39
    Hydraulic Pump 0.19
    Heaters 0.21
    Electronics 0.0001
    Total Energy 0.791 14157 4.15 5.25

    Some Conclusions observed from these tests:

    Our impact chamber is fully contained within the impact chamber containment vessel, which also includes an external pressure relief valve in these tests. The containment vessel unit has over 30 square inches of surface area, while insulated it continuously loses heat. Also you have take into consideration that the steel weighs over 4 lbs.

    With a few relatively minor changes in material and design we can cut both the weight and surface area of the containment vessel. In addition by going to multiple cylinders with impact chambers in contact with each other, it should be possible to eliminate about 30% of this surface area per injector. We estimate that 6 cylinders by themselves currently would be approximately 30 cubic inches times 6 or 180 square inches of surface area. The 6 cylinder engine would have aprox 126 square inches of surface area.

    Next the mild steel presently used in construction would be replaced with a 400 series Stainless Steel, further slowing the heat loss of conduction and radiation. Additionally, we would employ black oxide on all 400 series S/S to further reduce radiative heat loss.